Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs- What Every Pet Owner Should Know

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Dogs aren’t known for being Connoisseurs of fine cuisine, they just love chewing stuff. It really doesn’t matter how valuable, dangerous or disgusting it is. You name it, and your average dog will attempt to either eat it or chew it to bits. Since our dogs have such a cavalier, devil-may-care attitude to what they cram into their mouths, it’s up to us to make sure they’re not eating things that are poisonous to dogs.

We all love our dogs, and as owners, the health, happiness, and safety of our furry best friends is our responsibility.

So, if you read only one article on this blog, please make sure it’s this one, as it could quite literally save your dog’s life.  

This is a comprehensive list of common everyday things that are poisonous to dogs. These items can be found around the house, in the garden, or when you’re out walking.

They may seem harmless to us, but to your dog, it’s a different story.

Be aware of the dangers, and keep your dog safely away from them.

Is vitamin D poisonous to Dogs?

Dogs are not able to absorb Vitamin D from sunlight as humans do so they must get it from their diet.

common items that are toxic to dogs

Vitamin D is important for heart health in dogs as well as in calcium and phosphorus regulation but accidental ingestion of Vitamin D supplements, D-Drops and anything that has Vitamin D in it like Multivitamins or Omega-3 supplements are poisonous to dogs and requires immediate treatment. 

Symptoms include Bad breath, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, weight loss.

Are Pennies Poisonous to dogs?

If you have any pennies under the couch or on the counter somewhere, please pick them up and put them somewhere out of your pet’s reach.

While most coins may pass through a dog’s stools, pennies contain Zinc which gets broken down by stomach acid and will end up in Zinc poisoning.  

things that are toxic to dogs

Zinc will wreak havoc as it travels through the bloodstream, damaging red blood cells and causes liver, kidney, and heart failure. Symptoms are pale gums, weakness, vomiting, collapse, discolored urine. This condition is fatal if not treated quickly. Some jewelry, plumbing supplies, and nails also contain Zinc. 

Is Antifreeze poisonous to dogs?

Made of Ethylene Glycol. It’s sweet taste and green or yellow color is what attracts dogs to it. Please make sure you don’t spill any of it on the ground because it harms 90,000 animals and thousands of children annually. It only takes about 5 tablespoons to kill an average-sized dog. Symptoms are seizures, depression, and vomiting, excessive thirst and urination. 

A gallon of Antifreeze

Photo Credit: MN Pollution Control Agency via Wunderstock (license)

When kidney failure begins, it’s probably too late. If you have even the slightest bit of suspicion that your dog or cat may have come in contact with antifreeze, call your vet ASAP. A less toxic cousin of antifreeze is made of Propylene Glycol which is also used as an additive to food such as dairy products, cake mix, popcorn.. yum!

Are Rodenticides poisonous to dogs?

Yes, you should never let your dog get anywhere near this stuff. Dogs that accidentally ingest rat poison suffer from kidney failure and internal bleeding and severe vomiting. Rodents that were killed by rat poison must be discarded immediately. Pets that eat rodents that were poisoned by rat poison may get poisoned themselves. Call your vet immediately and do not induce vomiting unless told to do so.

common items that are toxic to dogs

Symptoms are coughing/vomiting blood, bloody nose, bleeding gums, difficulty breathing, collapse.  Some rat poisons contain Vitamin D which works by raising calcium in the blood to toxic levels. Insecticides are also toxic even in small amounts. 

Is Treated Toilet Water poisonous to dogs?

When you see your dog drinking water from the toilet, a typical reaction would be “Ewww!” and it would be totally understandable to avoid doggy kisses at that point. Dogs aren’t squirmish like us humans and they usually have a stronger stomach. 

i saw my dog drinking toilet water

Pets are naturally attracted to running water. In many cases, toilet water is fresher than a dog’s water bowl because it’s flushed a few times a day. Treated toilet water is a different story, though. Bluewater isn’t as toxic as it used to be but it’s still the equivalent of drinking soapy water which might cause vomiting and diarrhea. 

The real danger is ingesting or chewing the drop-in tablet which may cause chemical burns in the mouth and throat. There is also a risk of poisoning by toilet cleaner chemicals. On top of that, there is a risk your dog may contact E.Coli and Giardia. 

Avoid a potential trip to the vet by always closing the toilet lid and/or the washroom door and clean your dog’s water bowl thoroughly once a week. 

Is Bread Dough poisonous to dogs?

Raw yeast dough contains yeast and produces carbon dioxide and alcohol as it ferments and alcohol is a big no-no to dogs. It is quickly absorbed in the bloodstream and causes alcohol poisoning. If you’re familiar with bread making, dough expands faster in a warm environment which is what the stomach is. 

Common things that are toxic to dogs

 It then causes bloating and puts pressure on surrounding organs, making it difficult to breathe. It may build enough pressure to actually rupture the stomach lining. Please do not take this lightly. Many dogs who ingest raw yeast dough do not make it, even with treatment. Practice safe baking and keep raw dough well away from your dog’s reach and lastly, never ever give garlic bread or raisin bread to your dog. 

Click here to learn 24 foods to never feed a dog.

Is Cured/Smoked Meat Poisonous to Dogs?

This includes ham, bacon, sausages, salami and the like. Too much salt and fat can be detrimental to your dog’s health (and yours, too) and can cause Pancreatitis – a potentially lethal disease. Symptoms to look for are vomiting, greasy yellow stool and loss of appetite.  

things that are toxic to dogs

 Excessive amounts of salt and fat can also lead to obesity which can, in effect, result in joint pain, diabetes and heart disease to name a few. But these are the least of your concerns. Dogs that consume fats have a much higher chance of developing a complex condition called Bloat which is a medical and surgical emergency. 

Symptoms to look for are: whining when belly is pressed, salivation, restlessness, enlargement of abdomen. Too much salt can cause tremors, vomiting, high temperatures, even death. Keep salty food like chips and pretzels away from Buddy. 


As a side note, wipe your dog’s paw after going for a walk because they may ingest road salt when licking their paw. If your dog suddenly starts to limp, its because road salt hurts their paws. Move away from the sidewalk and onto the grassy area. 

Is Fertilizer Poisonous To Dogs?

If you’re an avid gardener like me, there’s a good chance you’re using Bloodmeal and Bonemeal as a fertilizer especially when planting tomatoes. These are used to amend the soil and add vital Nitrogen(the stuff that makes things grow). Bloodmeal is made of flash-frozen blood and is commonly used in organic gardening. Dogs can find it appetizing and this can cause fertilizer poisoning in dogs, resulting in vomiting, diarrhea, and pancreatitis if ingested while Bonemeal is made of ground-up flash-frozen animal bone and is also great to use as a slow-release fertilizer. 

common things that are toxic to dogs

 Dogs that ingest it, have problems when it forms into a solid round substance similar to a bowling ball in the stomach. This may also block the gut, requiring surgery. What’s worse is that Iron is usually added to fertilizers, which is also a big no-no. If you must really use these types of fertilizer, store it in a place where your dog can’t access it.  If you know that there a high risk of fertilizer and dogs coming into contact, you may want to try a safe fertilizer for dogs. There are plenty of pet-friendly fertilizers available on the market, just double-check the packet to see if it’s fertilizer safe for dogs.

Compost contains a ton of bacteria and fungus and should also be kept away as well as grass fertilizers and weed killers.

Are Household Cleaners Poisonous To Dogs?

The average home contains 62 toxic chemicals though, to be honest, I think it’s much higher than that. A dog may accidentally ingest common cleaning chemicals containing Isopropyl alcohol, Ammonia, Formaldehyde, Chlorine, Phenols, Glycol Ethers and VOCs (Volatile organic compounds) found in oven cleaners, floor cleaners, toilet cleaners, drain cleaners, glass cleaners and all-around cleaners including carpet shampoo, rust removers, and laundry detergent can cause vomiting, diarrhea, anemia, cancer, lung damage, kidney damage, and even death.

things that are toxic to dogs

Accidentally mixing bleach and ammonia can be fatal to humans and dogs. Avoid these poisons by using vinegar, lemon juice, baking soda, pure castile soap, washing soda, hydrogen peroxide, and using a steam machine to clean around the house or opt for dog-friendly cleaning products. Always read the label and remember that “Natural” does not mean it is safe for dogs.

More Toxins Lurking At Home

  • Raw Potatoes – Can cause nausea,  vomiting, and seizures(also in humans)
  • Silica Gel Packets – May cause obstruction in the gut especially in small dogs
  • Liquid Air Fresheners – May burn the mouth and cause digestive upset
  • Insecticides – Life-threatening even in small amounts
  • Mosquito Repellent – Toxic agent is DEET. May cause tremors, seizures, and death
  • Cigarettes – Nicotine can kill a dog. This includes nicotine patches and gum. It can cause severe vomiting. Do not smoke around pets. Dispose of cigarette filters safely
  • Petroleum Jelly – Can cause Diarrhea and Vomiting
  • Soap and Shampoo –  Can clog the gut. 
  • Moth Balls – Ingesting Naphthalene Balls can cause Anemia, Vomiting, kidney and liver damage
  • Anti-Depressants – such as Prozac, Paxil, and Effexor. These may cause sedation, tremors, seizures and neurological problems
  • Human Medications – such as Aspirin, Naproxen, and Ibuprofen. Tylenol may cause irreversible damage to the liver
  • Iron Supplements – Can cause vomiting, liver failure, and stomach ulcers. 
  • Essential Oils – can cause diarrhea and vomiting

Keep in mind…

  • Snack bags – Can quickly cause suffocation when dogs sniff inside it, creating a vacuum seal. Never leave plastic grocery bags or any type of plastic bags lying around.
  • Easily swallowed items  – found in every home like Paperclips, Hairpins, Needles, Rubberbands, Batteries, Dental Floss

24 Foods To Never Feed Your Dog

Toxic Plants To Keep Your Dog Away From:

While the majority of the plants in our gardens are completely harmless, there are a few seemingly innocent-looking plants that can be extremely hazardous to our furry friends.

Here’s our list of plants that are dangerous to dogs.

Why Are Grass Seeds Bad For Dogs?

things that are poisonous to dogs - an image of grass seeds that are harmful to dogs

Grass seeds can burrow in your dog’s skin/paws/eyes and may cause major damage. Keep your dog away from the tall grass in warm and dry weather

Are FoxTails Dangerous To Dogs?

things that are poisonous to dogs - an image of foxtails that can be harmful to dogs

Similar to Grass seeds, they can also inflict pain on your dogs, they are especially nasty if you get foxtails in dogs nose or foxtails in dogs ears. Keep an eye out when walking your dog as it’s very easy to find foxtails in dogs paws. 

Are Hydrangea Poisonous to Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

Hydrangea and dogs are not a good match as they are toxic to dogs (and humans). The leaves and buds of the Hydrangea plant contain cyanide. Symptoms of poisoning are Diarrhea and Vomiting.

Are JADE PLANTs Toxic to Dogs?

things that are toxic to plants

The lucky Jade plant, poisonous to dogs if mistakenly eaten. Any dog unfortunate to try eating this toxic plant it may suffer from vomiting, slow heart rate and incoordination.

Is Ivy (Hedera Helix) Toxic To Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

 Is Ivy poisonous to dogs? There are many types of Ivy and luckily, not all of them are toxic. The toxic ones contain Saponins which cause drooling,  abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.

Are Daffodils Poisonous To Dogs?

common things that are toxic to dogs

Are Daffodils toxic to dogs?

Yes, dogs that eat the Daffodil plant or drink water with Daffodils in it may get poisoned. Symptoms are convulsions, tremors, diarrhea, vomiting, and heart problems. The most dangerous part is the bulb. 

Are Tulips Poisonous to Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

While these plants are indeed pretty, tulips are toxic to dogs. Symptoms of toxicity are excessive salivation, diarrhea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, seizures, coma. Store bulbs safely. 

Are Poinsettia Poisonous To Dogs?

common things that are toxic to dogs

Keep an eye out for Poinsettia and dogs when they are in the same location. Poinsettias are mildly toxic to dogs. Common symptoms include drooling, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea.

Is Aloe Vera Poisonous to Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

Aloe vera for dogs is only mildly toxic. Symptoms are vomiting, tremors and changes to urine color, and loss of appetite. 

Is Foxglove Poisonous To Dogs?

Things that are poisonous to dogs

Foxglove to dogs is pretty but highly poisonous, even to cats and humans. All parts of this plant are poisonous especially the berries. Even water in a vase that had this plant is toxic. It contains toxins that affect the heart. 

Is Oleander Poisonous To Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

Oleander and dogs have similar toxic effects as Foxglove with the exception that it can also harm horses and cattle. 

Is Lily Of The Valley Poisonous To Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

The effects of this plant are also similar to Foxglove. Symptoms are a drop in heart rate, vomiting, diarrhea. Contact your vet ASAP

Is The Star Of Bethlehem Poisonous To Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

May cause tremors, seizures, drooling, vomiting. All parts of the plant are toxic

Are Clematis Poisonous To Dogs?

things that are toxic to dogs

This bitter plant can cause drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. Thankfully, dogs don’t like the taste


Hopefully you found this list of things that are poisonous to dogs helpful. 

If you have any household items listed here, do remember to store them well out of reach of your dog.

Should your garden be full of the toxic and dangerous plants previously listed, try and replace them with something safer for your dog.

If you suspect that your dog has eaten any of the items listed in this article, or is displaying any of the symptoms that indicate they’ve ingested something toxic, please get them to a vet as soon as possible. 


All information in the article is for educational purposes only and is not meant to replace your veterinarian’s advice.


All information in this article is for educational purposes only and is not meant to replace your veterinarian's advice.

143 thoughts on “Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs- What Every Pet Owner Should Know”

  1. Hello dear, thanks for sharing such amazing concise information with us all. Wow what wonderful content you have here, I was actually doing some research online when I saw your post, I believe your post has really been helpful to me in all areas, am really looking forward to save these post so as to come back for future reference, thanks a lot for the info

  2. so thoughtful of you to share such an article on things that are poisonous to dogs I’m a pet owner, precisely own a dog  jummy…., Jimmy is much more than a dog to me I consider him a companion and also a friend… I must say that I’m so lucky to stumble upon such an intriguing articles which gives me the laundry of words to avoid giving to him to keep him safe… thanks for such a lovely review and look forward to sharing

  3. Thanks for the info. I have both a small dog and a cat. I knew there were certain plants that are toxic to dogs, but the list you gave is shocking. Some of those are fairly common around the house , inside and out. We got a Christmas cactus last year that I was told would be toxic to the animals, but little did I know all of the other plants that could harm them. Hydrangeas? I had no clue! Thanks for the info! 

    • Our dog, Watson had diarrhea after nibbling on a hydrangea in our backyard when he was a puppy. 

      Im glad you enjoyed the article

  4. Wow – great article! I learned several new ones on here, despite having dogs our whole lives. Some of these are everywhere in our country-life yard. So, hopefully the new baby girl won’t like the taste!

  5. Hi There,

    What an incredible website and niche, I really loved reading that as did my sister another canine lover. I wasn’t aware that so many things could be poisonous to canines let alone the normal stuff we feed dogs like ham etc something many people do in honesty. I had no idea we could treat dogs with anxiety with CBD, that’s cool to know.  It’s such a delightful read and really colourful to the eye. I’ll show this to my friends at our weekly meetups at the local coffee shop

    In Friendship


  6.  I was not aware so many things were poisonous for my dog! Thank you so much for this information you may have just saved my dog’s life man. Your article has been a true insite to me and my family. I will be sharing this to all on my social media. This article needs to be seen by everyone!

    Who would have thought my ham and other meats could be bad for my puppy!  I was aware of the fertilizer, moth balls, and antifreeze. Is there any uncommon things that could also be poisonous? Or is this the extent of it all?

  7. It’s insane that the number one reason for people calling the animal poison center is over the counter and prescription drugs!  

    I know accidents happen but, for it to be the number one reason …that’s a heck of a lot of negligence!

    I think the biggest scare I’ve ever had involved a half pit half lab.  We came home one night and there he was cowering under the foosball table, not only clearly guilty in his expression but, also the evidence was plastered all over his muzzle and head.  He’d managed to jump onto our kitchen counters and, grabbed 3 bags of Halloween chocolate!

    I wondered why I didn’t see chocolate on your long list but, I guess that is one most people hear a lot.  It’s actually the theobromine in chocolate that is toxic.  Luckily they were mini-Hersheys candy bars that didn’t have high enough levels to kill him!  Suffice it to say though…yard cleanup was not pretty for a few days. 

    While he had several mini-candy bar wrappers stuck to his head and strewn on the floor, that wasn’t enough to account for three bags worth.  Luckily, he passed them or, it could have been much worse.  

  8. Great information for us Dog Parents!  Such a fantastic resource to reference to make sure our loved pets are taken care or properly.  One of our dogs loves to drink my wife’s coffee when she leaves it unattended and consequences are really scary!  I would add caffeine to the list as well.  We had another time when one of our dogs dug into my laptop bag and chowed down on a dark chocolate bar.  Luckily the dogs fared ok in the long run but they went bananas until the caffeine finally flushed from their system.

  9. Thank you very much,for a great and informative article. Simple and at the subject. Good job.

    I am the owner of two dogs, and I am trying my best to protect them from all the stuff that you listed in the article. When they were puppys, they really did everything. Stealing bags, slippers, eating everything they caught.

    I had to be more careful with them, than I was with my child. At least, now they are at an age when they are more calmer.

  10. Wow. I never knew so many common things are poisonous to dogs. I have a German Shepard at home and her name is Shelby. Just gave birth to three cute puppies 🐶 

    Honestly i didn’t even know smoked meat and raw dough are harmful to dogs and some others mentioned here. Indeed one learn everyday. Thanks for this enriching post. 

    • Hi Patrick,

      Looks like you’re having a lot of fun at home with the puppies. Both items you mentioned are very toxic to dogs


  11. I knew about a lot of these, but some were a total surprise! Like raw dough and cured meats! 

    I also remember hearing one time that grapes/raisins are toxic to dogs but I didn’t see that on your list. Do you happen to know anything about that? 

    Thanks for your help! My puppy gets into EVERYTHING so this will come in handy I’m sure. 🙂 

  12. Many thanks for the outstanding article about the things that are poisonous for dog. Your post is really helpful not only for me but also other people. 

    I had a dog. Recently the dog is died. So I am looking for a new dog. From your post I have learned a lot of new things. I always try to give smoked meat. But it is wrong. I have read your post fully. 

    i will maintain your advice for my dog’s good health. Thank you again for this post. Dog lovers will earn a lot of knowledge trough it.

  13. Thank sonny for the great article about things that are poisonous to our dog and pets i have pet dog i call him liam  i learn so much after reading these article i found out about antifreeze ,toilet treated water and many more things like these i what ee need to know to be good parents to our dogs thank you

  14. Some of the things you discuss are pretty obvious like antifreeze and antidepressants, but your article is a good reminder to be careful with these kinds of products that we use every day. I had not thought about raw dough which makes sense when you think about it.  As I read the article, basically I was thinking that many of the things that we protect toddlers from are the same things that can cause harm to our dogs.  Thanks for this exhaustive list.  I also appreciate the list of toxic plants.

    • Hello, Thank you for taking the time to comment. You are absolutely correct – save for the toilet water and a few things, the items in the list are similar to things you would put away from a toddler.


  15. What a great resource for Dog owners.  This article really helps me to become more aware of what is being left around for our Luna to eat or get into.  She is still pretty puppyish, so she is always chewing on something.  I was wondering about a couple of other things I did not see on the list that my wife had mentioned might be bad for the dog.  One of them is grapes…  and the other is red onions .. or just onions?  I thought maybe throwing that out there, you might be able to clear that up for me?  Thank you for sharing… I will be looking out for any loose pennies for sure!  Good stuff.

  16. Wow this is an eye opener! Thanks for sharing this information. I’m planning on getting an American Eskimo dog next month, though I know much about dogs but don’t know some of these household items can actually be of no good to them such as liquid air fresheners. 

    Also I won’t fail to include vitamin D in her diet once she arrives. Thanks for this! I’m grateful.

  17. Hello, thank you for the great information. I have two dogs so this is important information to know. I hadn’t thought about the zinc in pennies so I will make sure those are always put away as well. I keep toilet lids shut so that should resolve any problems there. Thanks a lot for such an amazing review about Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs- What Every Pet Owner Should Know and explanations are given.

  18. Thanks a lot for such an amazing review about Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs- What Every Pet Owner Should Know and explanations are given.

    I recently bought a husky dog. So I try to find out as much about dogs. I read a lot of articles about it, but this is the best. I will definitely take these tips into consideration.

    Thanks again and I wish you all the best!

  19. This is really a beautiful piece of information on things that could be poisonous to dogs. You’ve really taken the time to do your diligent research before coming up with this. Sometimes it could be hard to know what are poisonous to our pet. Ecoli is generally a big trouble to animals and as pet owners we must do every thing to keep her out. Good work. Keep it up!

  20. Thank you for the great information. I have two dogs so this is important information to know. Of Course, I knew anti freeze was real bad for all pets, so I keep it put away safe when I have it in my garage. I hadn’t thought about the zinc in pennies so I will make sure those are always put away as well. I keep toilet lids shut so that should resolve any problems there. I am real particular what my dogs eat and keep all poisons, cleaners, and fertilizers stored safely so they shouldn’t have access to those things. 

  21. Great Article! You provide a fantastic amount of information and VERY nicely laid out as well.

    i would like to know the theme you are using. (I like the pics of plants and descriptions)

    I was really impressed by all the details in the article like the processed meats that are bad for dogs as well as the pics of plants with descriptions of how they are bad for dogs. Every dog owner needs this information so well Done.

    I cannot see anything about your site I would change.

    You should offer tutoring on page building as you have done a great job here!

    • Hey Jason, thanks for the kind comment 😊

      I’m using the free Astra theme. The paid version has more bells and whistles. I’m also using Elementor to edit. 


  22. WOW! Great article! I will be sharing this with all my friends who own dogs as I had no idea so many plants and things like Sandwhich meats were so bad for them!

  23. This was a really informative article and full of great detail.  Most of the advice is common sense, but dogs don’t care about that do they?  Just like children eveything goes in their mouths.  In my opinion the most valuable bit of information is about the smoked meats.  I think a lot of people would make the mistake of “treating” their pet dogs with a piece of bacon.

    This was a scary article, but I hope it will help many future and present dog owners.  It can be really heartbreaking to see your dog suffer.

  24. Good job on putting together a truly exhaustive list of items to watch out for. Pets are family members too. It is equally important to watch out for them as we do loved ones. Thanks for the heads up. The number for Pet Poison Help Online? Priceless. Saved to my contacts. 

    I can tell you this. Even though my pet is important, I will not commit these things to memory. There are too many perils there to remember them all, but this makes for an excellent refrigerator list for quick reference along with the helpline number if the need arises. 

    All the best…

  25. Hello, I really want to first appreciate your effort in putting this great website together and writing this article. it is fascinating that a simple vitmanin D that is also required by a dog can also cause serious problems. i have so much to learn from this article of yours. i would like to share if permitted

    • Hi Benny. Share it, please. More pet parents need to read this article.

      Thanks for taking the time to comment


  26. Hey Sunny,

    What an eye-opener f an article this is! Thank you for such an informative piece.

    What I find really striking is the number of perfectly ordinary items that I won’t have imagined to be harmful to a dog -petroleum jelly, raw potatoes, grocery bags!!

    This just reminds me of when our baby started to crawl and everything goes into his mouth. We had to keep everything on the top shelves. I guess dogs are no different:)

    Thank you.


    • Hi Femi. You’re right, it’s similar to having a toddler in the house. I think I need to mention that as well


  27. Having a pet is one thing and tracking its behavior is another important thing as a pet owner. I don’t have a pet, not yet, and what you’ve listed can really cause damage to them if not death. This is why it’s very important to know how your pet behaves and to keep dangerous things away that will cause them health problems. This is very lengthy and informative. I think I’ll share this post with my friend that has a very inquisitive dog.

  28. This is really a beautiful piece of information on things that could be poisonous to dogs. You’ve really taken the time to do your diligent research before coming up with this. This shows that you’re passionate about sharing your knowledge with your readers. I’m a dog owner. Sometimes it could be hard to know what are poisonous to our pet. I’m glad you came up with a lot of information that could help us. I’ve learnt a lot from this.

  29. Wahoo, thank you for these lots of information, honestly if not that you pointed it out, I would have felt that vitamin D in supplements and the rest would be advantageous to dogs not knowing they are harmful. Ecoli is generally a big trouble to animals and as pet owners we must do every thing to keep her out

  30.  I am not a pet lover that is why the information in this website seems very new and interesting to me. To me, there are lots of minor issues to look after with pets, Pets are just like us, they have their lives with them. Proper care and loves must be tendered to them. Thanks for the infomation. Good work. Keep it up!

  31. Thanks for this I did laugh at pennies and toilet water though!

    I gave my dog a couple of grapes the other night and my 21 year old daughter railed on me to my surprise.  She tells me that she has read that dogs have an intolerance of grapes.

    Can you tell me is this true and are there any other fruits and vegetables that dogs are allergic to or suffer harm from?



    • Hello Hamish, I wrote an article on the subject. I hope you find it useful. Your daughter was correct..No Grapes!


  32. Once again, you’ve outdone yourself on information! You’re awesome for getting all this great info out. 

    There’s so many things we don’t know about that’s not good for dogs or animals in general. I’ve learnt a lot from the 2 articles that I’ve read on your site and I know many more can benefit from it too! 

    If I ever get a dog I know where I’m going for information.. anxious canine is where I’m going! 

    And I will be recovering people with dogs to your site also because it’s very important for people to know about all this information.

    All the best, 


    • Melissa! thanks for your comment! It really made me smile! 😊

      Im glad you found this article to be helpful! 


  33. Hello Sonny Chua,

    Thank you for allowing me the opportunity to comment on your “Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs- What Every Pet Owner Should Know” article.

    I had no clue that dogs could get Zinc poisoning from pennies, and I never thought about the alcohol poisoning dogs could receive from ingesting raw dough, although it makes sense how this can happen, I just never thought about it.

    I was really surprised to learn that fertilizer, If ingested, may form into a solid round substance similar to a bowling ball in the stomach which may block the gut, resulting in surgery requirements. This really sounds as terrible. It is great to know that there are pet friendly fertilizers out there.

    This article has really opened my understanding to all of the precautions that must be taken in order to keep dogs protected.

    Thank you very much for allowing me the opportunity to comment on your informational article. 

    Blessings To You My Friend,


    • Hello Jerry, this is my favorite comment so far because I can tell you read the entire post. I really appreciate it. And yes, fertilizers are dangerous to dogs. Blessings to you as well! 😊


  34. Hi, Sonny,

    This is some useful information for all dog owners and lovers!

    A few things are obvious like pennies, household cleaners, fertilizers, treated water, and other chemicals, but I didn’t know about other things you mentioned in your post. I knew chocolate is bad for them, although I heard only small dogs like Chihuahuas. I also knew about antifreeze.

    I never imagined the effects that Vitamin D, cold cuts and raw potatoes could have on them!

    Now, let me ask you something. Does this apply to all dogs in general or are there any exceptions? Does the breed or the size of the dog matter in any case?

    I look forward to your reply. Thanks!

    • Hello Enrique, this applies to all dogs but as a rule of thumb, the smaller the dog, the easier it is for them to get poisoned. I appreciate your comment! Thank you.


  35. Hi,

    Overall, I find this to be a very informative website.  There are lots of pictures, especially with the plants, which helps me to picture it.

    I always knew about antifreeze (ethylene glycol; sometimes propylene glycol is used today) and it’s potential toxicity to cats/dogs.  Also naphthalene (basically double benzene) I knew was toxic to people.  

    Plants like poinsettia, foxglove, oleander I think I have heard but not all of those that were listed.

    Overall, this is very thorough with a lot of good information.  Good use of pics on the plants to help to identify them.



  36. Hey, I enjoy while reading your article on Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs. I found the list of things that are poisonous to dogs like Antifreeze, Pennies, Rodenticides (Rat Poison), Raw Dough, House hold cleaners etc.

    Honestly, there’s a lot I’ve learned through your post. Now its our responsibility to keep the dog away from these things.

  37. Hi Sonny,

    thanks for the great list.  definitely one for all pet owners.  I didn’t realise how bad some of them can affect them.  Especially things like Vitamin D supplements, you wouldn’t really think about it, but I will now.

    Thanks for this list, will be sharing with a few pet owners I know.

  38. He Sonny,

    I enjoy reading this post!!

    I have a dog that I currently care for, but long before that, I had one that died and we couldn’t find out the cause. We simply concluded at this time that someone intentionally poisoned him. But this post opened my eyes a little.

    Honestly, there’s a lot I’ve learned through your post.
    For example, I didn’t know that vitamin D, raw potatoes, and certain plants like aloe vera are toxic to dogs. 

    The things I just mentioned are things you can easily find at my house. I will inform my family and we will be careful!

    Thank you for this helpful and informative post!!

    • Hi Sebastian,

      Vitamin D always comes as a surprise to a lot of readers. Im glad you learned a lot in this article!


  39. I am so grateful that I encountered your post about things that are poisonous to dogs! I knew majority of them, but Vitamin D was a big surprise for me. And since I take Omega-3 supplements two times per day, I will be extra careful from now on to be sure I do not drop my capsule and give oportunity to my cavalier to eat it.

    What about chocolate? I heard many times that it’s extremely toxic for dogs…

    • Hello Katja, chocolate is also a big no-no. The smaller the dog, the more toxic they get. 

      Thanks for taking the time to comment!


  40. Hi Sonny. I’m thankful to Watson and to you for putting together this useful site. And specifically this post has helped me a lot. Can you believe there were a couple of things here that I have all around my house and I didn’t believe they were dangerous for my puppy. And one of them was I didn’t know pennies could cause Zinc poisoning. Thanks for these points.

    • Paolo, thank you for commenting. This post was a lot of work to put together but if it saves the life of even one dog, its well worth it


  41. Okay .. so I’m constantly gathering info on how to properly care for my dachshund.  When I read your list, I was taken aback.  I mean, I never even thought about raw potatoes or bread dough.  Not that I’d put it in his bowl for supper or anything, but still.  I’m an avid bread baker and my buddy is constantly near when I’m baking bread.  Fortunately, he’s a shorty … but given the opportunity, I’m sure he’d have his teeth in the dough.  Thank you for the comprehensive list!

  42. Hiya Sonny

    Thank you for your thorough article about things that are poisonous to dogs. I have to say I’m glad I don’t have a dog, looking after them sounds like a minefield! My brother in law’s dog had to be put to sleep last year after he ate wrapped chocolates among other things. It was very sad, he was a much loved member of the family but nothing was safe with him around. My sister kept everything out of reach, we don’t know how he got wrapped chocolate but that’s what was found when the vets opened him up. 

    I like to watch a dog called Tucker on HideoutTv and his owner fed him Aloe Vera on screen, should I tell her that he shouldn’t be eating it? I’m bookmarking your site so I can reference it in the future, krs PurpleLioness 

  43. I never knew vitamin D was toxic to dogs. I’m glad you mentioned it because I take vitamin D during winter and I just have it sitting next to my bed. My two dogs spend a good amount of time in my room so I’ll be moving these to a safer sport!

  44. What a great article.  You’ve covered alot of ground in terms of things that are poisonous to dogs. I knew of some things that are toxic to dogs but I never knew for instance about Propylene Glycol, one that it is used as an additive to food such as dairy products and cake mix and two that it can be toxic. Not good for us or our fur babies I wouldn’t think.  I knew about ham but had not extended it out to salama, bacon etc.  Makes obvious sense though when you think about it.  My cavoodle is very sensitive and I have had to look at elimination diets etc.  The vet said she could be allergic to wheat, dairy and chicken.  Trace elements of each of those is found in alot of foods (including pet food).  We really need to be careful about what we leave laying around.  Your mention of hairpins, paperclips, rubberbands and dental floss means that I will be much more vigilant.  Thank you

    • Thanks for taking the time to comment, martine. There’s a lot of things we can’t leave lying around if we have a dog

  45. I work at the vet clinic so I have seen my fair share of poisonous stuff that dogs often ingest. In fact, sometimes these things are given by the pet owners themselves. The most common one is paracetamol. When they feel the dog is having fever or having a lame leg, they would just throw in paracetamol. When it doesn’t improve, that’s when they come to us and we would be facing double trouble. 

    Painkillers for humans don’t work for doggies – owners need to know that the first time they get a dog!

    • Hey Cathy, human medicines were never designed for dogs. I really wish breeders, pet stores and adoption centers would give this information to the owners when they get a dog

      Thanks for your comment


  46. As a dog owner, I was aware of some of them. But others, I had no idea such as with pennies. I understand why that’s the case.

    What I found interesting was with cured/smoked meat. I always thought some of that was ok for dogs, but I guess not. Not all meat is healthy (for humans), and it also applies to dogs. Also, I knew about lawn fertilizer because I regularly fertilize my lawn during the season. Usually, I keep my dog off the lawn for several hours to let the application settle in. It’s always good to take precautions.

    This article was so valuable- I feel that I learned new things about what to keep away from my dog. I’ll keep them in mind.

    Thanks for sharing!


    • Hello Eric,

      Im happy you found the article to be helpful. Yes, cured meats are bad for dogs and humans too


  47. Thank you for this axhaustive list of all the things that are poisonous to dogs and while I knew about some of these already some of them went under the radar like vitamin D and zinc. Has your dog ever been poisoned or had to be treated for it and if so what made saving them a success instead of otherwise?

    • Knock on wood, no. He choked on something once, though and I absolutely panicked. Now that I mentioned it, I think that’s going to be my next post


  48. Don’t we all know some well-meaning brainless dog owner who feeds Fido whatever table scraps are around? Then they wonder why their chubby pooch is sick. My Granny would always give her dog scraps. The dog got overweight and didn’t do much. Granny would insist, “No more snacks for Rhoda!” At the next meal, Rhoda would be eating pizza or fried chicken. Rhoda did outlive Granny, but her next owner fed her properly and she became much healthier and more energetic. But I digress. Nutrition and the avoidance of certain toxins and people food are taken way too lightly by some people. We need to get your research and information out to more dog owners.

    • That’s why your dog outlived Granny. It’s sad. I wish more people actually spent some time to research these things


  49. Hi Chua! First of all, thank you for your insightful and informative article. Alot of these items are common sense (like anti-freeze, pennies, rat poison, and household cleaners), while the others are actually quite shocking (like vitamin D tablets). Also, you never think to be cautioned with antifreeze with a dog around because I would have never thought that it was so adictive that they’d try to lick it off the ground. That really blew my mind.

    • Hello Tyra,

      Animals are drawn to it because of its sweet taste but there are works underway to add a bitter agent to antifreeze to deter animals. Thanks for taking the time to comment.


  50. Yup, anti-freeze is deadly for dogs, and animals in general. Growing up, I was always told the importance of keeping pets away from liquids on the ground outside cause it could be anti-freeze; Especially during the colder months. But I actually didn’t know pennies were so poisonous for dogs too. Thanks for writing this up!

  51. As an avid dog lover and owner of two dogs myself, I love it when I find that someone is passing information that may ultimately save a dog’s life.
    In addition to your list, there are so many more as well, and people are just so unaware of the risks everyday items in the house can pose. Grapes, chocolate two really common items in the household are extremely dangerous to our dogs.
    Really appreciate the time you have taken to educate existing or would-be dog owners of what to look out for 🙂
    I have been part of discussions that certain types of bark, mainly the bark containing cocoa is also toxic to dogs, can you clarify this?
    Best wishes Justin

  52. Hi Sonny

    You have brought up such a comprehensive list of all potential toxins to dogs that you worry if you should let your dog out. You then realise that there are as many toxins in the home. You can try to protect your dogs but then they will go anywhere and try to eat they can get their paws on. This is not always possible but you have to try to train your dog not to eat undesirable. You can try to keep poisons out of the way but plants on the other hand is much more difficult. You either have to remove the plants or try to persuade the dogs not to go near them. I know having a beautiful garden and having a dog can  seem counterintuitive.

    What is the best thing to do if you suspect your dog has been poisoned?



    • Call the emergency number on the website or call your vet ASAP.

      The items in the list of poisons are just common items in the household to put away to prevent an incident.


  53. Hey Sonny, I think its actually counter-intuitive to keep a dog without first taking safety measures. To a degree, perhaps it is not far-fetched for dog owners to go through a certain level of training or pet safety orientation. These items seems very toxic to the dogs. I didn’t think vitamin D would feature on this list, it makes me wonder. This is very informative. Glad you shared

  54. I am a proudly owner of a mischievous husky name Shiro. Shiro likes to explore (destroy) and eat things and a couple of times he gets sick because of it. It is time for me to eliminate things that can harm him. Never thought of pennies! Omg I have to keep looking if any is on my couch or the corner of my laundry room. I will give him less cure meats too, he loves them but hey! he has to live with me forever. 

    Thank you so much for such an informative post. I will get right on it.  

  55. Wow, I did not know there where so many dangerous things that can effect animals. A lot on the list was very surprising like cured, smoked meats and raw potatoes. This is a great article, that’s needed, we All need to share it! Thank you for bringing this to our attention!

  56. I don’t feed my 3 little guys anything but their grain free hard and canned dog food and natural dog treats.  I do know people who feed their dogs a lot of table food as well.  I did not know that cured meats are bad for dogs, not that I feed mine this.  Was just new to me.  I think you should also include avocados, xylitol, coffee or tea, grapes/raisins, alcohol and chocolate.  These are all fatal for dogs as well.

    • I added a link to foods that are toxic to dogs. I intentionally did not mention these items because it would create duplicate content

  57. Thank you so much for the awesome post!  I did not realize there was so much that is poisonous to dogs!  I have a little dog at home, and most of these things I have sitting around at not realizing it could harm my dog!  Potatoes and smoked meat was the two that shocked me the most honestly.  I would have never guessed that.  Thank you for pointing this out!

  58. Sonny,

    As a dog owner and one that has her own dog website, I kind of knew about all the things you wrote about in your article.

    You had a lot of great facts about the different kinds of plants that were poisonous. I knew of some but not all. The one thing I was most surprise with was the vitamin D. That I was totally unaware of. Not that I give my dog vitamin D, but I take it as a supplement, so I now know to be more cautious that I don’t drop any on the floor where my dog can get to it.

    Thank you for this most important article regarding the safety of our dogs.

    All the best to you!


  59. Sonny,

    As a dog owner and one that has her own dog website, I kind of knew about all the things you wrote about in your article.

    You had a lot of great facts about the different kinds of plants that were poisonous. I knew of some but not all. The one thing I was most surprise with was the vitamin D. That I was totally unaware of. Not that I give my dog vitamin D, but I take it as a supplement, so I now know to be more cautious that I don’t drop any on the floor where my dog can get to it.

    Thank you for this most important article regarding the safety of our dogs.

    All the best to you!


  60. They can cause problems if not used as directed. Insecticides intended for dogs can cause serious toxicity in dogs, leading to vomiting, convulsions and difficulty breathing. Products designed to kill pests in the home should not be used on pets. For dogs, it is best when they walk outside the house to have a basket on their muzzle. Thanks for the educational post.

  61. Although there is no pet dog in my house, it is better for me to know Things That Are Poisonous to Dogs as soon as possible because, in the second half of this year, our whole family will move to a new house, my husband Already planned to have a puppy, because he likes puppies, he always told me that dogs are the best friends of human beings, and they are the trust of people’s feelings. When you come home from work, it flutters into your arms and you will feel very happy.

  62. Dear dog lover, Anxious,

    I love your research concerning what can poison my doggy. I knew about some of these, especially anti-freeze, and I realize that the poison center is going to mandate manufacturers of anti-freeze to include a very bitter chemical that will lead doggies to shy away from it, but we have to use our common sense, too. Your site is Bright and informative. However, I want to share something with you that might help get you better indexing, maybe even a top page index. I have researched this issue and I am still researching this issue—-it is vital to your traffic. We look at Jaxxy indexing helper—is nylabone safe for dogs 88 avg searches ea. month, 15 (visit to website), 20 QSR (# of competitive sites, Great (KQI Keyword indicator, 97 (SEO looks good for possible 1st pg. ranking.

    Okay now I want to introduce you to how I am now achieving higher indexing to drive traffic to my site. I will use your nylabone for this example. Your title “Is Nylabone safe for dogs?” Using the auto search or Alphabet soup method from Google themselves, this title generates 237,000 results. Lets get creative now. Let’s try this title, “my doggy eats nylabone abrasions what to expect?” This only generates 11,800 results. This is a much lower competitive title. This is also known as the low hanging fruit method, too. I have achieved top page indexing with this method, and it does drive in more traffic. Say you get a top index on a page and someone notices their dog’s nylabone is getting very abrasive, so they google it, “my dog is eating an abrasive nylabone”. These words open to a page where they see your site at the top. This can happen for you. I am learning more and more about my titles in my posts. I have learned that through creative and specific pots titles, I have achieved some top page indexing. This drives more traffic to my site. And, you can tweak other titles to perform like this, also. It’s a bit of work, but darn well worth it when it comes to driving people to your site. You might want to think about this.

    Thank you

    Anyway, happy marketing and have a great day

    Lots of Love

    Audrey J.

    • Hello friend! Thanks for sharing this tip. I’ll be sure to look into it. Keyword searching is tough – sometimes it takes me hours. The title on this post had the least qsr. I wanted to put “toxic” instead of poisonous but Toxic had way higher qsr. Thanks again! 


  63. This is a very important article for all animal lovers.  The safety of our pets shouldn’t be treated any differently than our children.  Most chemicals are a given as toxins for anybody, but more simple things such as plants are always looked over.  Knowing whats around your yard could save your pets life. Poisonous plants should always be a concern since dogs especially love eating whatever they find.  I like knowing what may endanger my dog and this gave me more insight in his protection.

    Thank you


  64. You have an excellent website in my opinion. It is very informative. Your website is very clean and easy to read. I can use that information in my life with my dogs. keep on the good work with your website. If  I had to rate it, I would say five stars. 

  65. I love your website. It was very informative. I love dogs. I just lost two dogs. I had them for 13 yrs. I did fed them something you mention on your website. I really like your website. Its clean and neat. Easy to read. Good luck.

  66. Oh thank you very much for sharing those things! I didn’t know that vitamin D supplements and snacks can be very dangerous to the dogs! I and my cousin has two cubs and they always excited when seeing us snacking our potato chips. Fortunately, we never give them our snacks. There are so many other things that we need to be cautious. Maybe we will print all of those things to remind us not to be more cautious. Thanks!

  67. There was a lot of stuff listed here that I didn’t know.  I never knew dogs couldn’t absorb vitamin d.  I will definitely look more closely at the type of food I’ll buy for my dog.  This blog should be shared to everyone who has a dog.  What type of dog food would you recommend?  What other types of food can a dog eat to get their full dose of nutrients?  You did an excellent job writing this review.

    • Hi Jon, I’m sorry I cannot help you with kibble type dog food because i honestly believe it doesnt contain enough nutrients for our dogs, no matter what it says on the label. Can you imagine living on processed food your entire life? We feed our dog meat and vegetables. Food that can be found in nature. Carbs should never be more than 30% of his diet. 


  68. I found your article very useful , elaborative and informative. I have learnt a lot from your post. 

    Every dog owners should be cautious and aware of what kind of things are poisonous for dogs. They need to be concerned about their dogs health.Few of the things you mentioned are dangerous for your dog’s health. like   pennies , fertilizers, Liquid Air Fresheners, Silica gel , Cigarettes, insecticides  etc

    Thanks for sharing this great Article

    Keep up the good work!

  69. There is a lot of very important information here and I thank you for sharing. I’m so glad you added the treated toilet water, my pug will drink from anyone’s toilet, lol. I have to keep the door closed and lid down in order to protect him. Also, the cured /smoked meats, I know so many people that feed there dogs sandwich meat or summer sausage. We all want our furry loved ones to be safe, Thank you for caring, I will pass this along and bookmark it for future reference.

  70. Vitamin D and Smoked meat were surprising items to find in your list! 

    Tobby has done it in the past, he sometimes goes to the garden and eats certain plants. The veterinarian has explained to us that this is a natural behavior and that Tobby was not feeling well and ate those plants for vomiting what causes him to feel bad. We love him, but it’s hard for me to believe that he does that looking for getting the vomiting effect.

    Thanks for sharing your list of poison help and this post. 

    • Hello Juan, Dogs have natural instincts when it comes to these things. This is also why sometimes dogs eat grass


  71. Dog lovers to remember. There are many dangers hanging around. I have dogs and cats, which is why I don’t use scents in the house. I’m just airing. The cleansing substances are taken from Life Care and are not harmful to animals. Almost all garden flowers and plants in the house are toxic to animals. Also most human drugs. The veterinarian should be consulted.

  72. Very interesting. I knew antifreeze was not good for humans or dogs but had no idea about the Omega supplements. I also had no idea raw dough was so bad or garlic bread for that matter. Is it the garlic that poses a problem, as I always thought this food was good for everything and anything.

    I will also remember not to feed the dog the leftover Vienna’s after reading this, although he has never had any adverse reactions from giving them to him in the past.

  73. Hello there. Thank you for sharing this pet life saving information with us. Some of the stuffs you have mentioned are ordinarily not what I would have imagined to be dangerous to our pets. Things like cured/smoked meat never occurred to me. I know some stuffs are dangerous without anyone telling me. Nice article.


  74. Thank you so much for sharing with us such a beautiful article. I’m glad I found this article. I have a little dog. Thank you so much for listing poisonous for dogs. It will be of great benefit to those of us who own dogs. I think, it’s a bit of information overload but as pet owners, it is our responsibility to know this list by heart. Thanks for the information and sharing. I will definitely share it with my friends. Thanks again and I can’t wait to read more posts like this.

  75. Thanks for this excellent article on the things that are poisonous to dogs and letting us pet owners know what is important to know. I have two dogs and it pays to read through information like this every once in a while as a reminder, plus to learn what new things we need to watch out for.

    The list that you expanded on is much bigger than I expected and there were some new things for me. I had no idea that vitamin D, cured meats, raw potatoes, and raw dough were all problems for dogs. I got exactly what I was hoping for with this post, and my two dogs thank you too!

  76. Hi, Sonny.
    Thanks for sharing the information on things that are poisonous to dogs .. We must take care to safeguard our pets with our conscious efforts by taking precautions. A few of the items in your list of dangerous items are really shocking to me as I have never thought in this way. I will be sharing it with my fellow pet parents.
    Warm Regards,
    Gaurav Gaur

  77. Hello there,thanks for this awesome article it would be of great help to the public as it has been of help to me.i must say that you have done a great job on this article as it is very interesting and informative too and I must say I have learnt a lot as I never knew dogs cannot absord vitamin d and also that for tips on pennies I would keep that in check.

  78. Thank you for such ana amazing article on things that are poisonous to dogs, a friend of mine owns a Golden Retriever who was perfectly healthy and the most active playful dog you can ever see until one day around Christmas season he started having periodic outbursts of diarrhea.

    The thing is, now that I read your article, I understood why! We used to sit and laugh at the dog at his sight shewing on a Poinsettia leave! In addition, they also do have a backyard where they use fertilizers, I will definitely recommend your article to my dog-owning friends, who, after reading your article all seem to be putting unhealthy things around their dogs.


  79. Thank you so much for sharing with us such a beautiful article .I have a dog and this is a very good friend of mine so I want all the time and be well .Through your article I found out what is toxic and very harmful to dogs, so many thanks .I found your article on antifreeze, vitamin D, pennies, rodenticides (rat poison), treated toilet water, raw flour, cured / smoking meat, fertilizer which can cause a lot of harm to my dog.If I am thinking of the biggest problem for my dog from this is vitamin D and raw flour because it is always in my house. Because I did not know that dogs do not tolerate vitamin D and raw flour from sunlight. So I must keep away from the sunlight and keep the yeast very carefully .I collected your article for the future, and I will follow every tips you give my dog for my dog to keep him healthy. 

  80. I am so delighted to read this kind of useful article, you have really helped a lot of people to protect their dogs including me, because am also guilty of this things as well.
    A lot of people do not know the harmful effects of this things you have listed but reading this article explains it all.
    My dog infact plays with most of this things and I now know their side effects and will try to prevent reoccurrence by ensuring that I always put things in order.

  81. I am so delighted to read this kind of useful article, you have really helped a lot of people to protect their dogs including me, because am also guilty of this things as well.
    A lot of people do not know the harmful effects of this things you have listed but reading this article explains it all.
    My dog infact plays with most of this things and I now know their side effects and will try to prevent reoccurrence by ensuring that I always put things in order.

  82. I just learned that some plants such as Aloe Vera and Tulip can actually have toxic effects on dogs. And because of your article, I became more aware for my dog did not approach any of these plants. Because I also plant it in the back of my house. Especially Aloe Vera that I plant for the purpose of fertilizing and shining hair.
    Therefore, I thank you very much for this very useful article. However, if you don’t mind, can you give me a link or source related to these 2 types of plants that shows their toxic effects?

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